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To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
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StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
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[[An interactive infographic from the BBC|]]
Presents an interactive map of Europe, colour-coded to indicate British expatriate numbers. Countries can be selected to reveal a table presenting:

NUMBERS OF BRITONS IN ? (Total; Male%; Female%; + other categories)
EMPLOYMENT STATUS (~UK-born; Locally-born)

Also includes similar statistics for N. America, Caribbean, S. America, Africa, Middle East, Asia and ~Asia-Pacific.
[[Why a shorter working week can help us all to flourish in the 21st century|]]
[[New Economics Foundation|]]
"Executive summary
This report sets out arguments for a much shorter working week. It proposes a radical change in what is considered ‘normal’ – down from 40 hours or more, to 21 hours. While people can choose to work longer or shorter hours, we propose that 21 hours – or its equivalent spread across the calendar year – should become the standard that is generally expected by government, employers, trade unions, employees, and everyone else."
[[£13tn hoard hidden from taxman by global elite|]]
The Guardian
A global super-rich elite has exploited gaps in cross-border tax rules to hide an extraordinary £13 trillion ($21tn) of wealth offshore – as much as the American and Japanese ~GDPs put together – according to research commissioned by the campaign group Tax Justice Network.

[[Economic Inequality: 93% of the growth in incomes accrued to the top 1% of the population|]]
George Monbiot
The growth of inequality that has accompanied the consumer boom ensures that the rising economic tide no longer lifts all boats. In the US in 2010 a remarkable 93% of the growth in incomes accrued to the top 1% of the population (7)
[[One European in Four Risks Social Exclusion|]]
Vox Europ
"Un européen sur quatre, soit près de 120 millions de personnes 'risquent l’exclusion sociale', écrit La Vanguardia au lendemain de la publication du rapport d’Eurostat sur le revenu, l’inclusion sociale et les conditions de vie."

"In Europe, one person in four - nearly 120 million - are at risk of social exclusion, says La Vanguardia a day after the publication of the report from Eurostat on Income, social inclusion and living conditions."
[[Infographics|]] from united churches dispelling the myths.
United Churches
Truth and Lies about Poverty: Infographics
''Main Graphics''
*They are addicted to drink and drugs
*DLA claimants - main disabling condition (Can be in work)
*Annual housing benefit payment bands
*'They' have an easy life on benefits
*'It pays to be out of work and have more kids'
*Life expectancy (Scottish males)
*Who receives benefits money?
*'They' are on the fiddle
*Who had a drink last week? (%)
*Rise in spending over 20 years (%)
*Poverty numbers by work status
*Benefit fraud
[[An overview of economics|]]
New Economics Foundation
This briefing gives a basic introduction to economics, and outlines what you can expect from the rest of the series. Inside, we look at the relationship between microeconomists and macroeconomists (and where these people fit into real life) before diving deeper into the world of microeconomics, and its uses in policy making.
''Main Headings''
*What is economics?
*Economics in flux
*What are micro and macroeconomics?
*What do economists actually do?
*What do these briefing papers cover?
*Economic policy analysis: an introduction
*The free market argument
*The role of government
*Addressing market failures
*Weighing up the options
[[Part One: Finance and money - the basics|]]
New Economics Foundation
This briefing provides an introduction to the financial system and its interactions with the economy. It is divided into two parts: The first part (9a) provides an overview of finance, money, credit and debt. The second part (9b) critiques the existing institutional arrangements and suggests alternatives.

It should be borne in mind that the systems described here are products of a complex institutional history – a fact which suits the beneficiaries of the status quo (e.g. private banks) very well, because it keeps the general public and civil society in a state of passive ignorance. For this reason we encourage perseverance with this extended briefing as it is critical in understanding finance, banks, debt, growth and urgently needed alternatives...

''Main Headers''
*Modern finance: its functions and forms
*Money, banks, credit, debt and interest
[[Beyond GDP: Valuing what matters and measuring natural capital|]]
New Economics Foundation
This briefing summarises the debate around GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and alternatives to it. It will explain what GDP is and how it is calculated, consider the problems with GDP, and outline some of the alternatives. It will conclude by exploring the relevance of this debate for environmental ~NGOs, and suggest some criteria for how environmental ~NGOs should judge these alternatives.
''Main Headings''
*What is GDP?
*What’s wrong with GDP?
*What alternatives do we have?
*Horses for courses – which alternative to GDP should we use?
[[An infographic from Hope Not Hate:|]]
An infographic showing, to the nearest thousand, the number of Brits living in other EU countries.
[[Wealth Inequality|]]
An image summarises:
* 46% of the world's wealth is held by 1% of the population
* 14% of the world's wealth is held by 90% of the population
[[Banking Scandals UK|]]
BBC News website
Discusses the possibility that the lack of prosecutions arising from recent banking scandals might be related to the trial of the Blue Arrow case in 1992, which went down in history as Britain's most expensive criminal trial, costing an estimated £40m (roughly £70m adjusting for inflation).
[[Part Two: What's wrong with our financial system?|]]
New Economics Foundation
This second part of this briefing on finance and money is critical in understanding the ‘growth imperative’ which results from how money is created and presents the urgently needed alternatives.
''Main Headings''
*A structural growth imperative
*Conflict between the ‘medium of exchange’ and ‘store of value’ functions of money
*Mis-allocation of credit leading to economic instability
*Mis-allocation of credit leading to social and ecological harm
*What are the alternatives?
*Alternative 1: Public banks
*Alternative 2: Green quantitative easing
*Alternative 3: Credit guidance by the government or central bank
*Alternative 4: Nationalisation of the money supply.
*Alternative 5: Regional or local money systems
[[How about a 'citizen's income' instead of benefits?'|]]
The Guardian
"We should look again at our welfare system and consider the idea of a citizen's or basic income - a minimum survival payment granted to everyone - in place of means-tested benefits."
[[Anti-Immigration Sentiment Has No Relation To The Number Of Foreigners In A Country|]]
Huffington Post
Presents an Infographic illustrating the percentages of EU citizens resident in the UK. Discusses how these statistics compare to other EU countries and summarises attitudes in EU countries to their EU immigrant population. Briefly discusses how attitudes reflected in popular sentiment can be affected by interaction with EU immigrants, and how these attitudes are expressed in support for political movements.
[[Income Inequality in the UK 2014|]]
Source: [[High Pay Centre|]]
The UK is one of the most unequal countries in the developed world. The gap between pay at the top and bottom is huge. Living standards for everyone - apart from those at the very top - remain squeezed. But we argue, it doesn't have to be like this.
[[Citizen's Income|]]
Scottish Green Party Briefing Note
"A Citizen's Income would sweep away almost all benefits and the state pension and replace them with a simple regular payment to everyone – children, adults and pensioners.

This income should be enough to meet the basic needs of everyone.
This unconditional payment to everyone would be cheaper to run and do away with the incredible complexity of the current system."

Considers how to make CI a fair system for all and how to accommodate the differences between UK and Scottish law.

Examines how CI can address income inequality using such measures as the GINI coefficient.

Includes these charts and graphs:
* Income Inequality (Scotland/Iceland/Denmark/Norway/Sweden/Finland)
* Change in Household income with a Citizen's Income
* How much does your household earn?
[[Who Lives Where in Europe|]]
The Guardian
Provides an interactive infographic showing numbers of EU and non-EU immigrants resident in each EU member state. Infographic allows selection of target country (EU and worldwide). Based on data from Eurostat.
[[Corporate Welfare Payments|]]
Source: [[The Guardian, Monday 6 October 2014 20.30 BST|]]
Billions of pounds of British public money has gone to business, with Disney getting 170m. They really are taking the Mickey.

The article revolves around the facts revealed in the first paragraph:

"Last week, as the Tory faithful cheered on George Osborne’s new cuts in benefits for the working-age poor, a little story appeared that blew a big hole in the welfare debate. Tucked away in the Guardian last Wednesday, an article revealed that the British government had since 2007 handed Disney almost £170m to make films here. Last year alone the Californian giant took £50m in tax credits. By way of comparison, in April the government will scrap a £347m crisis fund that provides emergency cash for families on the verge of homelessness or starvation."
[[EU Immigration (NewEuropeans)|]]
Jon Danzig, New Europeans
The article criticises the (then) UK Home Secretary, Theresa May, for presenting a misleading picture of immigrants' intentions and rights. Summarises the arrangements under EU law for migrants to draw upon the social security systems of the host country and their rights to seek work. Presents some statistics showing that EU immigrants from Central Europe are 60% less likely than British natives to be receiving state benefits, and that they make an overall net contribution to the UK economy.
[[Immigration in the UK: Mythbuster - November 2014|]]
Keith Taylor MEP
Offers counter-arguments to the following common myths about immigration:
*Immigrants are to blame for the UK’s economic & social problems
*Britain is full
*Immigrants are taking all the jobs
*Immigrants drive down British workers' wages
*Immigrants only come to the UK to claim benefits
*The UK is a soft touch on asylum seekers/the country is flooded with asylum seekers
[[The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK|]]
The Economic Journal
{Source:} ~CReAM (Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration) is an independent and interdisciplinary research centre located in the Department of Economics at University College London.
"We investigate the fiscal impact of immigration on the UK economy, with a focus on the period since 1995. Our findings indicate that, when considering the resident immigrant population in each year from 1995 to 2011, immigrants from the European Economic Area (EEA) have made a positive fiscal contribution, even during periods when the UK was running budget deficits, while Non-EEA immigrants, not dissimilar to natives, have made a negative contribution. For immigrants that arrived since 2000, contributions have been positive throughout, and particularly so for immigrants from EEA countries. Notable is the strong positive contribution made by immigrants from countries that joined the EU in 2004."
[[UK gains £20bn from European migrants, UCL economists reveal|]]
The Guardian
"European migrants to the UK are not a drain on Britain’s finances and pay out far more in taxes than they receive in state benefits, a new study has revealed.

The research by two leading migration economists at University College also reveals that Britain is uniquely successful, even more than Germany, in attracting the most highly skilled and highly educated migrants in Europe."
2014 (notional)
[[46% of the world's wealth is held by 1% of the population|]]
Infographic depicting:
*46% of the world's wealth is held by 1% of the population //versus//
*14% of the world's wealth is held by 90% of the population
[[Wealth: Having it all and wanting more|]]
Presents numerous graphs and tables illustrating the following topics:
[[Immigration to Britain has not increased unemployment or reduced wages, study finds|]]
The Independent
Source report see [[2015-??: Immigration and the UK Labour Market|2015-??: Immigration and the UK Labour Market]]
Summarises, in text and graphs, the findings of an LSE (London School of Economics) report.
* no connection at county level between immigration 2004-2012 and unemployment in the area
* no evidence of fall in wage levels
* no evidence that young or low skilled employment was impacted
* migrants tend to use fewer public services and be more likely to be in work and paying tax because they were relatively young
“On balance, the evidence on the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration regularly seen in opinion polls have not, on average, materialised”
[[Paying everyone a basic income would kill off low-paid menial jobs|]]
Discusses pros and cons of an 'unconditional basic income' in the context of technological advances such as automation. Presents some figures on costs and funding and suggests how such a system might impact the current UK welfare bill (including pensions), corporate business models and the healthcare budget.
[[People Powered Money: Designing, developing and delivering community currencies|]]
[[New Economics Foundation (NEF)|]]
__''What is in the book?''__
"The book is divided into two parts. Part One gives a non-technical overview of the potential benefits and major pragmatic considerations of community currency projects. As such, it may be particularly useful for those in the policymaking world or people new to the field.

Chapter 1 discusses the rich and varied ancestry of complementary currencies, placing the subsequent sections within a historical legacy. Chapter 2 then turns to the objectives of community currencies and emphasises the importance of an outcomes-led approach to their design. We focus on four areas of impact that currencies often address: raising the quality of public services; supporting small businesses and the local economy; addressing social inclusion and building social fabric; and improving environmental sustainability.

Chapter 3 gives an overview of the kinds of stakeholders community currency projects typically engage with, and what levels of commitment and contribution can be expected from each. Some of the challenges associated with undertaking such a large, complex and multi-partner project are also discussed.

From here, Part Two moves on to consider the ‘nuts and bolts’ of currency design, delivery and implementation. Although this section is necessarily more technical, we hope that the material will be equally valuable and accessible to both unfamiliar and specialist readers.

Chapter 4 summarises the major considerations of designing a currency and – while emphasising that each community currency is unique – provides a set of guiding principles for any currency design process.

We then go on to discuss in greater depth some of the technical design features that community currencies commonly incorporate in Chapter 5. Moving beyond community currency design features themselves, in Chapter 6 we cover the wider challenges of making a currency project a success. A currency can be fantastic ‘on paper’ – so to speak – but without a sound organisational structure or secure funding channels, it can be difficult to get off the ground.

Chapter 7 focuses on developing an effective communications strategy, something essential for getting a currency project going and bringing the necessary people on board at each stage. Finally, Chapter 8 covers the evaluation of a currency project. For both individual community currencies and the field as a whole, it is essential to build up a rigorous body of evidence in order to learn what works and what doesn’t, which design features are effective – or ineffective – in different circumstances and how projects can be further refined and improved.

We have avoided overly specialised terminology, but a certain amount of technical vocabulary is unavoidable. We have included a glossary to cover all of the technical terms used – all entries are underlined in the body of the book for easy reference. The ‘Further Reading’ section includes books, publications and online resources for those wishing to go deeper into the community currency field.

Also included are a number of case studies of ‘currencies in action’. With these we aim to make the book less abstract and give the reader practical examples so as not to get bogged down in the technicalities.

For easy reference, each currency case study is marked with one or more symbols indicating its major objectives. These symbols recur throughout the book and are detailed on page 24 and 25:


The index at the back of the book will help readers to navigate the case studies of over 30 currencies included, as well as further mentions of their features throughout the book. For more information on each currency, and the concepts and terms that surround them, visit our online resource:

Though re-engineering money is no simple feat, we hope that these examples – and indeed the book in general – help to make currency design and implementation a more tangible, appealing and feasible idea for more people.
[[Welfare spending 2011/12|]]
Pie chart showing how welfare spending in the UK was allocated in 2011/12 among these categories:
* State Pension
* Housing Benefit
* Disability Living Allowance
* Pension Credit
* Income Support
* Incapacity Benefit
* Attendance Allowance
* Council Tax Benefit
* Job Seeker's Allowance
* Winter Fuel Payments
* Employment and Support Allowance
* Statutory Maternity Pay
* Carer's Allowance
* Other
[[Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Report, August 2015|]]
Office for National Statistics
This article outlines the latest population estimates for the UK by country of birth and nationality, covering the period from 2004 up to the latest data for the year ending December 2014. The report discusses how these figures have changed over this period and highlights any statistically significant changes over the past 2 years in the resident population of the UK.
[[Benefit fraud vs. Tax fraud|]]
Pie chart illustrating:
* £1.2bn lost to benefit fraud
* £30bn lost to tax fraud
Comments on disparity between staff employed by DWP to combat benefit fraud (3,300) vs. staff employed by HMRC to combat tax fraud (300).
[[Rethinking migration for a Good Society|]]
"This Thinkpiece considers how we can conceive of a fair and more just migration policy which is more in tune with a world in which ‘people just move’ than with anti-immigration sentiment and xenophobia, specifically by considering what a Good Society, central to the work of Compass, means for immigration control. The paper sets out some of the key principles which could inform an immigration policy in the fair and equal society that a Good Society concept represents, and considers the implications of this approach for issues of social justice, solidarity and community resilience. The core argument that I put forward is that, if a Good Society means tackling inequality across a range of factors which affect life chances, then a Good Society should mean embracing a more open and liberal approach to immigration."
[[Working hours: Why you are literally wasting your life (unless you live in Sweden)|]]
>"Long working hours are bad for both businesses and people. Why haven’t our lives changed with the times?"
Starting with the observation that Keynes' prediction that his grandchildren’s generation would likely have working hours of just 15 hours per week hasn't happened, the author briefly discusses the factors and forces involved, including the fallacy that working more hours gets more done and noting the negative effects of stress arising from long working hours.
Noting that 'The link between shorter hours and greater productivity has been observed for over 150 years.', the author describes the Swedish experiment, where the working day was cut from eight to six hours. He cites the example of Gothenburg Toyota service centres that made the switch to six-hour days 13 years ago, and comments:
>"Now, you won’t be surprised to hear that this has resulted in happier employees and a lower turnover of staff, but it’s perhaps more startling to note that profits have risen by 25%."
Acknowledging that correlation does not infer causation, the author cites a report by the European Foundation, which found that those with flexible hours or “part-time” roles were both happier and more productive and bolsters this assertion by citing a supporting study in The Harvard Business Review.
The article summarises its case by suggesting that numerous factors influence our propensity to work long hours, including:
In conclusion, it is suggested that technology, while increasing productivity also blurs the distinction between 'work life' and 'home life'. But perhaps our cultural norms are the strongest barrier to moving to a better work/life balance:
>"Culturally, hard work is intertwined with success and moral character, no matter how worthy the work.
[[Immigration quote: Owen Jones - 2015-12 (image)|]]
Owen Jones
An image quoting Owen Jones, who asks: 'Who caused our country most problems: the bankers ... expenses-milking politicians ... wealthy tax-dodgers ... rip-off rent-charging landlords ... OR Indian nurses and Polish fruit-pickers?'.
[[Migration Statistics Quarterly Report: May 2016|]]
Office for National Statistics
"In the year ending (YE) December 2015:

Net ~Long-Term International Migration = +333,000 (up 20,000 from YE December 2014; not statistically significant)
Immigration = 630,000 (down 2,000 from YE December 2014; not statistically significant)
Emigration = 297,000 (down 22,000 from YE December 2014 ; not statistically significant)
Net migration in YE December 2015 was 10,000 higher than the 323,000 published for YE September 2015.

The increase in net migration was the result of a decrease in emigration, whereas immigration was at a similar level to the previous year. The decrease in emigration has been driven by a fall in the number of British citizens emigrating (down 14,000; not statistically significant).

Net migration of EU citizens was estimated to be 184,000 (compared with 174,000 in YE December 2014; change not statistically significant). ~Non-EU net migration was 188,000 a similar level compared with the previous year (194,000).

The estimate of immigration for EU citizens was 270,000, compared with 264,000 in YE December 2014 (a non statistically significant change). Immigration of non-EU citizens saw a decrease from 287,000 to 277,000 (not statistically significant).

In YE December 2015, 308,000 people immigrated for work, an increase of 30,000 from the previous year and the highest estimate on record. Of these, 178,000 (58%) had a definite job to go to and 130,000 (42%) arrived looking for work � the latter figure being a statistically significant increase from 104,000 the previous year.

Of all ~EU2 citizens who came to the UK in YE December 2015, 52,000 (84%) came for work-related reasons, a statistically significant increase of 17,000 from YE December 2014. Of these, 60% (31,000) arrived with a definite job to go to, a statistically significant increase of 17,000 from YE December 2014.

Latest employment statistics from the Labour Force Survey show the estimated employment level of EU nationals (excluding British) living in the UK was 2.1 million in January to March 2016, 224,000 higher than the same quarter last year. British nationals in employment increased by 185,000 to 28.2 million and non- EU nationals in employment increased by 5,000 to 1.2 million. Over half of the growth in employment over the last year was accounted for by foreign nationals. (These growth figures represent the NET change in the number of people in employment, not the proportion of new jobs that have been filled by non-UK workers.)

There were 630,000 National Insurance Number (~NINo) registrations by EU nationals in YE March 2016, an increase of 1,000 (0%) on the previous year. For non-EU nationals, there were 195,000 ~NINo registrations in YE March 2016, an increase of 2,000 (1%) on the previous year.

In YE March 2016, visas granted (non-EU, main applicants) for skilled work rose 1,316 (+2%) to 54,961. Total work visas granted decreased 1,609 (-1%) to 121,639.
Long-term immigration for study was estimated to be 167,000 in YE December 2015, compared with 191,000 in YE December 2014 (not statistically significant). This was driven by a statistically significant decrease of 22,000 for non-EU citizens (112,000).

There were 41,563 asylum applications (including dependants) in YE March 2016, an increase of 30% compared with the previous year (32,036). This is the fifth successive year in which asylum applications have risen, although the number of applications is low relative to the peak in 2002 (103,081).

The largest number of applications for asylum, including dependants, came from nationals of Iran (4,811; +2,324), followed by Pakistan (3,511; -1), Iraq (3,374; +2,367), Eritrea (3,340; -270) and Afghanistan (3,133; +1,423). There were 2,235 (+680) Syrian nationals granted asylum or an alternative form of protection in the YE March 2016 and a further 1,667 Syrian nationals granted humanitarian protection under the Syrian Vulnerable Persons Resettlement Scheme."
[[2015 General Election Report|]]
Electoral Reform Society
"May 7th 2015 was, to say the least, an unpredictable result. But we knew one thing well before polling day – it would also be an incredibly unrepresentative result. Few parties saw their vote shares fairly reflected in terms of seats. The Greens and UKIP won nearly five million votes but received just two seats between them. Few can look at those figures and think that the voting system is working for our democracy."
__//Katie Ghose, CEO, Electoral Reform Society//__

Examines the results of the UK 2015 general election to illustrate how the FPTP system fails to produce anything like fair results. 

"For the first time, the parties with the largest number of seats in each of the four nations are all different: Conservatives in England, Labour in Wales, Scottish National Party in Scotland and Democratic Unionist Party in Northern Ireland.

Within England there are also divides. In the South West of England, there is only one seat west of Bristol not held by the Conservatives, while metropolitan areas throughout England remain dominated by Labour."

"FPTP is exaggerating the political differences of the different regions and nations of the UK, leaving many citizens unrepresented."

"FPTP is out of date and unfit for purpose. The system cannot cope with the choices voters are making in this multi-party era."

Goes on to discuss how millions of votes are lost under FPTP and concludes by analysing how the election results would have turned out under three alternative voting systems: Single Transferable Vote, Party List Proportional Representation (List PR) and the Alternative Vote (AV).
[[Breakdown of votes in Cornish Constituencies|]]
For the 2015 general election, this is a discussion illustrated with statistics and pie charts, of how the FPTP voting system fails to reflect the wishes of voters:

"Across Cornwall 7 out of 10 people did //not// vote Conservative in 2015 - yet all six Cornish constituencies have a Tory MP."
[[Immigration and the UK Labour Market|]]
Jonathan Wadsworth, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics
* The share of immigrants among working age adults in the UK more than doubled between 1995 and 2014 – from 8% to 17% – and now stands at over 6.5 million. Immigration is now the top concern in opinion polling.
* Net migration was 250,000 in 2014, significantly above the government’s target of a maximum of 100,000 by the end of the current parliament.
* European Union (EU) countries account for one third of the total immigrant stock. New inflows of EU immigrants are almost as large as inflows from outside the EU. Most EU arrivals are for work-related reasons whereas most non-EU arrivals are for study-related reasons.
* Immigrants are better educated and younger than their ~UK-born counterparts, especially those from the ~EU15 (the members before the 2004 EU enlargement). Around 10% of all migrants are students. Immigrants are over-represented in the very high-skilled and very low-skilled occupations.
* Almost 40% of all immigrants live in London and 37% of Londoners were born abroad. Around 60% of the working age populations of Brent and Westminster are immigrants compared with under 3% in Knowsley and Redcar & Cleveland.
* Immigrants do not account for a majority of new  jobs. The immigrant share in new jobs is – and always has been – broadly the same as the share of immigrants in the working age population. 
* There is still no evidence of an overall negative impact of immigration on jobs, wages, housing or the crowding out of public services. Any negative impacts on wages of less skilled groups are small. One of the largest impacts of  immigration seems to be on public perceptions.

''//Tables & Figures//''

Table 1: Immigrants in the UK’s working age population (16-64)
Figure 1: Immigrant shares across the OECD
Figure 2: Public perceptions of important issues facing Britain
Figure 3: Net UK inflows (inflows minus outflows) by citizenship
Figure 4: Annual inflows by reason
Table 2: Country of origin of immigrants to the UK (percentage share of migrants in brackets)
Table 3: Education and immigrant status (working age population), 2014
Table 4: Occupational distribution of immigrants and ~UK-born, 2014
Table 5: Industrial distribution of immigrants and ~UK-born, 2013
Figure 5: Immigrant share in regional population 2014
Figure 6: No relationship between changes in immigration and unemployment, 2004-12
Figure 7: No relationship between changes in immigration and local wages, 2004-12
Figure 8: Immigrant share in new jobs
Table A1: Inflows by citizenship and reason for entry (000s)
Figure A1: Unemployment for immigrants and ~UK-born men and women
[[An Economy for the 1%|]]
Oxfam Briefing Paper
"The gap between rich and poor is reaching new extremes. Credit Suisse recently revealed that the richest 1% have now accumulated more wealth than the rest of the world put together.1 This occurred a year earlier than Oxfam’s much publicized prediction ahead of last year’s World Economic Forum. Meanwhile, the wealth owned by the bottom half of humanity has fallen by a trillion dollars in the past five years. This is just the latest evidence that today we live in a world with levels of inequality we may not have seen for over a century.
//An Economy for the 1%// looks at how this has happened, and why, as well as setting out shocking new evidence of an inequality crisis that is out of control."
Charts, graphs.
[[The world’s richest 62 people now have more wealth than the poorest 3.6 billion combined|]]
//Comment on the Oxfam report [['Economy for the 1%'|]]//
"So much wealth has accumulated among the world’s richest that the 62 wealthiest people on the planet now own more than the poorest 3.6 billion people, or half the planet, according to research published by Oxfam, an anti-poverty charity."
[[Migration and local authorities – impact on jobs and working conditions|]]
Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), University of Greenwich, London.
//Executive Summary//
Although since 2014 the EU has increased its responsibilities for migration policies, with the crisis in 2015 the Member States have started to exert control over migration at national level. Just as there has been tension between EU migration policies and national level policies, there is growing evidence that local authorities are taking a more proactive position to define local policies for third country nationals. In some countries, these complement stronger positive national policies, in other countries, where there is an absence of national migration policies, local authorities are playing an important role in supporting the integration of third country nationals within society and the local economy. They do this through social cohesion activities, language education and wider education and life-long learning services. The position of third country nationals in the labour force is often weak, especially women and those with low levels of education. There is a need for more focused strategies to make the recognition of existing qualifications easier and quicker. Third country nationals do not form a large part of either local authority or public sector workforces. In a period of growing labour shortages, this problem will have to be addressed through faster recognition of qualifications and training, mentoring and networking initiatives. Austerity policies have had an impact on third country nationals because they have resulted in cuts to services, e.g. social cohesion, which were specially targeted at third country nationals. The effect of the global economic crisis has also disproportionately affected the employment of third country nationals, thus slowing their integration into the labour market. Public sector workers responsible for services for third country nationals have experienced cuts in budgets, more difficult working conditions and a lack of training, which has made it more difficult to deliver adequate public services.

''Recommendations to local authorities:''
* Recognise the important role that third country nationals can play in the local economy and society;
*Encourage principles of diversity and equality in all local / municipal policies supported by systems of accountability;
*Help third country nationals to take part in democratic processes, e.g. advocate the right to vote;
*Target initiatives to multiple social groups, e.g. entrepreneurship training for both young entrepreneurs and third country national entrepreneurs, poverty reduction to low income groups including migrant groups;
*Provide information and services in multiple languages;
*Put equal opportunities/ diversity recruitment policies in place and monitor them annually;
*Create public procurement policies that encourage third country national businesses and third country national friendly businesses;
*Set targets and collect data to monitor and evaluate programmes - share this information with third country national organisations.
[[Our friends in the City: Why banking’s return to business as usual threatens our economy|]]
[[New Economics Foundation (NEF)|]]
"The UK has one of the biggest, most concentrated, risky, complex, and interconnected banking systems in the developed world. It leaves us uniquely exposed to global financial turmoil.

If post-2008 promises to reform our financial system had been kept, the dangers we face now would not be so acute. Instead, UK banks have fast-tracked a return to business as usual. Contrary to recent claims by policymakers, post-crisis reforms did not fix the structural problems with our banks. Recent concessions to the City are already rolling back the limited progress made:
* Banks are still at risk of failing. Measures to increase banks’ capital do not go far enough, and in any case they misdiagnose the problem: financial crises are created within the financial system. More must be done to change the business models behind our banks’ risky behaviour.
* UK taxpayers remain on the hook. Banks remain too big to fail, and as a result, continue to receive £5.8bn a year in implicit government subsidies. The ring fence between retail and investment banking – intended to insulate the taxpayer from losses caused by risky activities – is also being rolled back.
* The UK banking sector still lacks competition and diversity. The UK has the second most concentrated banking sector in the G7 – its top 3 banks own over half of all bank assets – and is uniquely dependent on shareholder-owned banks. Recent changes to the bank levy actually undermine competition, as they benefit big, international banks like HSBC at the expense of smaller challengers.
Recent concessions to big banks have been justified by claims that international investment banking is vital to our economy. These claims are grossly exaggerated: our status as an international banking hub is as much of a liability as an asset:
* The City’s contribution to UK growth is outweighed by the damage from financial instability: Banks’ contribution to Gross Value Added (GVA) has consistently fallen since 2008. Financial instability does long-term harm to economies: the losses to UK GDP from the crisis of 2008 have been estimated at up to £7.4 trillion.
* The City is a weak and unbalanced provider of jobs: Wholesale banking accounts for just 120,000 jobs, and only 15,000 of those are outside London. UK banks only created 36,000 new jobs in the pre-2008 boom years and have been cutting jobs consistently since 2006.
* Banks pay even less corporation tax than they did before the financial crisis. Corporation tax paid by banks has fallen from £8.8bn in 2008 to £3.8bn in 2014, despite a new levy which promised to recoup the costs of bailing out the banks (£289bn in direct costs alone). This fails to cover even the interest payments (estimated at £5bn a year) on these costs.
* The City is still failing to serve the real economy: only a small proportion of banks’ balance sheets (less than 10%) supports non-financial businesses – the majority is fuelling an unsustainable housing boom in the South East of England. Small business lending is still severely lacking, and the credit banks do provide is regionally unbalanced.
Despite this questionable record, banks continue to threaten to move elsewhere if regulation is designed against their interests. HSBC’s recent threat to quit the UK and relocate its headquarters abroad is only the most recent example of such tactics.
This is not a credible threat:
* London remains an attractive proposition to banks for a whole host of reasons that have little to do with tax or regulation and are difficult to replicate elsewhere, from the time zone to the global language.
* Even if banks’ threats were followed through, the impact would not be as disastrous as we are led to believe. Only a fraction of the jobs and taxes provided by UK banks would actually need to move given a relocation of headquarters – and there would be benefits as well as costs, most obviously a reduced exposure to global financial shocks.
We cannot afford a return to business as usual. Given their overstated contributions to the UK economy, and the real liabilities the City of London represents, threats to leave unless given concessions can and should be faced down. The interests of big banks should not come before those of the rest of the economy."
[[Is access to work really a pull factor for asylum seekers?|]]
The Conversation
Discusses the complex issues driving some immigrants to claim asylum, focusing on employment.
"According to the available data, the main pull factors are:
* The presence of family and friends in destination country – they want to be near familiar people.
* The language spoken in the destination country – privileging countries with a familiar language.
* A belief that the destination country respects human rights and the rule of law in general.
Concludes that:
"It is unlikely that access to the labour market for asylum seekers encourages economic migrants - whose primary motivation is migrating for work as opposed to escaping war or persecution – to apply for asylum. There is no research explicitly focusing on the pull factors for so-called 'bogus' asylum seekers, those who migrate for work but nevertheless make an application for asylum. Yet, of the studies that we reviewed, the statistical research finds no long-term correlation between labour market access and the number of bogus asylum seeker applications."
[[everything you need to know about EU immigration|]]
//Source: Channel 4 ~FactCheck//
* Immigration from the EU was 270,000 last year, but about 85,000 people left, leaving a balance (net migration) of about 184,000 EU citizens.
* The ONS estimated that there were 2,938,000 people with EU nationality living in the UK in 2014. The Labour Force Survey says there are 2.15 million EU citizens in employment in the UK.
* Migration statistics say 739,000 people arrived from other EU countries between 2010 and 2014, but the number registering for a national insurance number was 1,537,000.
* The ONS published a report on this earlier this month, saying most of the difference was down to short-term migration people coming to Britain to do seasonal work, then returning.
[[Universal Basic Income: An idea whose time has come?|]]
Executive summary
This paper examines the desirability and feasibility of introducing a universal basic income (UBI) scheme in the UK. It examines the merits of such a scheme, how it might be implemented and what role it might play in the search for a good society, one that is more equal, sustainable and democratic. In particular, it presents the results of a number of simulations of how such a scheme would work in  practice, including its cost, distributional impact and feasibility. The analysis has been commissioned by Compass. It has been funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and uses the Landman Economics tax-benefit model (see appendix A).

There are very strong arguments in favour of a UBI. Such a scheme would overcome many of the problems with the existing and increasingly complex, punitive and unpopular system of social security, which in multiple ways has become a weak tool for social protection but a strong tool for waste and the humiliation of those on the very lowest incomes. A UBI would provide a much more secure income base in an age of deepening economic and social insecurity and unpredictable work patterns. It would offer much greater financial independence and freedom of choice for individuals between work and leisure, education and caring while recognizing the huge value of unpaid and voluntary work.

Central to the case for a UBI is the way it would help prepare us for a world in which the new technological revolution, driven by artificial intelligence and robotics, will, over time, transform the nature of work and the type and number of jobs. A UBI offers a powerful way of protecting all citizens from the great winds of change to be ushered in by the fourth industrial age, and of sharing the potentially massive productivity gains that it will bring. The big issue with a UBI is not whether it is desirable but whether it is feasible. Would it be affordable, and could it be introduced in a way that prevented losses among the poorest sections of society? Who would gain and who benefit? In an attempt to provide some answers to these questions, we have undertaken a series of simulations of how variants of such a scheme might work in practice. All the schemes modelled are real ~UBIs in that they are paid to everyone, without condition, and cannot be withdrawn. The amount paid is obviously crucial but can be scaled up.

We have examined two UBI models: a full scheme (that replaces most means-tested benefits) and a modified scheme (that leaves existing means-tested benefits in place, at least initially). The results of our simulations show that:
* a full scheme that replaced all or most of the existing system would be difficult to implement in the present circumstances; it would be too expensive and there would be too many losers among poorer households
* it would be possible to implement a modified scheme, which would raise average incomes at the bottom, reduce poverty levels, significantly for children, and reduce the level of inequality, all at a manageable cost.

While a modified scheme would be a hybrid, at least initially retaining most elements of the existing system, it would contain a genuine unconditional income and deliver many of the benefits of a full scheme. It would constitute an extension of universality in social security and reduce the volume of means testing by around a fifth. It could be implemented quickly and could be treated as essentially transitional, as a first step towards the implementation, over time, of a full or near-full scheme.

Such a scheme would have an estimated net annual cost of around £8bn, just under 0.5% of gross domestic product (GDP). This is a relatively modest sum in relation to the huge benefits of such a scheme and the reduction in poverty and inequality that it delivers. Moving towards a fuller scheme would involve additional costs over time. Perhaps the most effective way of meeting such costs would be by creating a targeted UBI social wealth fund, a collectively owned pool of financial funds and assets. The returns from such a fund could be used to help finance some or all of the additional costs associated with a more generous UBI scheme.

The principle of a UBI is now being increasingly widely accepted and is gaining support across the political spectrum in the UK and other countries. In the UK, several high profile organisations have now backed the principle of a basic income including the Royal Society of Arts. In 2015, the longstanding right-of-centre think tank, the Adam Smith Institute, called for the introduction of a negative income tax to replace tax credits, Jobseeker’s Allowance and other means-tested benefits. The 2016 conference of the Scottish National Party has backed the principle of a UBI, as has the Green Party, while some Liberal Democrats have called for a UBI to become party policy. The new shadow chancellor, John ~McDonnell, has expressed interest in the concept in the past and more mainstream ~MPs such as Jonathan Reynolds MP have come out in support of UBI.

The idea of a UBI has been steadily rising up the political agenda and has a growing number of advocates. In 2010, Iran became the first country in the world to establish a nationwide basic income where it is financed from oil revenues. The Alaskan scheme has been in place for a quarter of a century, but pays an annual dividend, not a weekly income. There have been pilot schemes in the USA, Canada, Namibia and India.

In Switzerland, a national referendum on the implementation of a scheme is to be held in 2016. The Canadian province of Ontario is to trial a scheme in the same year, while there are plans to launch limited local schemes in Finland, the Netherlands (prompted in part by the broadcast of two Dutch documentaries about basic income, which have raised public awareness of the idea) and France.

These forthcoming overseas experiments are helping to build momentum in support of an idea that, until recently was confined mostly to a few think tanks, commentators and academics. It is now time for a national debate on the issue and for Britain to follow the lead being taken elsewhere to launch its own pilot scheme.
[[5 Facts about Immigration that May Surprise You|]]
Facebook, anonymous, undated.
* 26% of NHS doctors are foreign-born
* Almost 5.5 million British people live permanently abroad
* Immigrants 60% less likely to claim benefits
* EU immigrants contribute more than they take out
* Most studies fail to show a correlation between immigrant levels and employment/unemployment
[[Yanis Varoufakis: ‘Western Democracies need a New Deal’_BBC Newsnight|]]
BBC Newsnight
"Here Yanis Varoufakis, former Greek Finance Minister, argues that it’s time for a “New Deal” – including a universal basic income."
[[Preparing Our Economy for the Impact of Automation & AI|]]
Robert Reich
"Professor Reich comes to Google to discuss the impact of automation & artificial intelligence on our economy. He also provides a recommendation on how we can ensure future technologies benefit the entire economy, not just those at the top.

Robert Reich is the Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley and Senior Fellow at the Blum Center for Developing Economies. He served as Secretary of Labor in the Clinton administration, for which Time Magazine named him one of the ten most effective cabinet secretaries of the twentieth century. He is also a founding editor of the American Prospect magazine, chairman of Common Cause, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, co-founder of the nonprofit Inequality Media, and co-creator of the award-winning documentary, Inequality for All."
[[The new political campaigning|]]
LSE Media Policy Project: Media Policy Brief 19
*Election communication has been subject to regulation since the nineteenth century. This aims to sustain democratic legitimacy by maintaining a level playing field, guarding against corruption and falsehood, and safeguarding transparency.
*New technologies such as social media pose challenges for established institutions and principles of regulation of election communication such as spending limits and regulation of political advertising, and undermine the ability of existing regulation to maintain a level playing field in electoral communication.
*New intermediaries and platforms now occupy important gatekeeper positions once occupied by journalists but have not adopted the ethical obligations of the media. This presents a threat to elections and potential for corrupt practices to emerge, including the potential for foreign interference in elections.
*These problems are beginning to emerge in the new communications environment that can undermine the legitimacy of the democratic process. There is therefore a need for new standards in this area, and an expanded watching brief for communications regulators, parliaments, electoral monitors and civil society.
*To resolve these problems, we need a review of campaign regulation that is independent of government. This should take account not only of limits on spending, but the wider context of broadcast regulation and data protection, and their impact on political campaigning.
[[What Britain's post-Brexit immigration policy could look like|]]
The Conversation
Discusses the tricky interplay of economic and social justice factors feeding into any formulation of a realistic immigration policy. Considers relative benefits of allowing low-skilled worker immigration from the EU versus from non-EU countries. Options examined are:
* EU preferential system
* Five-year working visa
* Sector-specific schemes
* Regional migration policy
[[Would people work if they didn’t have to?|]]
Argues that the goal of UBI is to provide everyone with a monthly basic income to provide for basic necessities. Offers six reasons why people and society will not only continue to work, but work better, with a Universal Basic Income. These are:
# No More Poverty Trap
# More Efficient Work
# More Innovative Work
# More Work Opportunity
# More Productive Work
# More Important Work
[[From City Hall to Citizens’ Hall|]]
Electoral Reform Society
'FROM CITY HALL TO CITIZENS’ HALL: Democracy, diversity and English devolution' Discusses the potential impact upon local and national democratic processes of the advent of the new Metropolitan Mayors. Describes the types of mayoralty, how they work, and gender diversity in candidature. Goes on to discuss how power then gets distributed across political parties and concludes with an examination of how comparable arrangements have worked out in other countries, and how such devolutionary measures might develop in the future.
[[Migration stats bust myths about skills and welfare|]]
[[Source report|]]
"Brexiters have been happy to play on fears that most EU workers are unskilled and that many are a drain on the welfare system. New labour market statistics bust these myths, while showing just how important EU nationals are to the UK economy.

Office for National Statistics figures reveal EU workers made up 7% of the 30 million British workforce in 2016, a total of 2.2 million EU workers. Separate statistics show that EU citizens make up roughly 5% of the total population.

EU workers are particularly predominant in some industries (see chart below). In sheer numerical terms, the retail, hotel and restaurant sector employs by far the most: over half a million.

Which countries people come from also affects where they work. Finance and business has the highest proportion of nationals from “old” EU countries (~EU14). Nationals from the Eastern European states which joined the EU in 2004 (~EU8) represent approximately 8% of workers in manufacturing. Meanwhile, the highest proportion of Romanians and Bulgarians (~EU2) work in construction."

Article contains three graphs:
* Proportion of EU workers in different industries
* proportion of EU workers in High, Upper Middle, Lower Middle and Low wage bands
* % in employment: UK and EU workers aged 16-64
[[There Could Be a Real Solution to Our Broken Economy. It’s Called ‘Universal Basic Assets.’'|]]
[[Institute for the Future (IFTF)|]]
Argues that the marketplace in which most commerce takes place today is a socio-economic construct, crafted by individuals with a specific purpose - increasing their own wealth. While this construct has generated unprecedented economic growth with some benefits for the masses, today it is  also producing deeply damaging social and ecological outcomes.
~DIscusses the need for a new model to address massive wealth inequality and proposes 'Universal Basic Assets (UBA)'. In the author's view, UBA is a core, basic set of resources that every person is entitled to, from housing and healthcare to education and financial security.
Describes the forces underlying such a need:
* climate change, driving mass migrations
* advances in automation, AI and machine learning
The discussion is continued under the following headings:
* A Framework for Equity
* New Assets, New Rules
** Private Assets
** Public Assets
** Open Assets
Ref: [[IFTF Working Paper|]]
Ref: [[Universal Basic Assets Podcast|]]
[[UK needs immigration to keep service industries going, says ONS|]]
The Guardian
[[ONS Report|]]
"This article and accompanying data provides information on the number and characteristics of migrants in the UK Labour Market in 2016. In particular, it focuses on industry, occupation, hours worked, earnings and skills. The data accompanying the article also provides information at a regional level. This article will underpin further short articles we intend to publish over the next year looking at individual topics in greater depth."
[[Varoufakis - Why the Universal Basic Income is a Necessity - by the Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute|]]
Yanis Varoufakis
"In this video former finance minister of Greece, professor of economics, author and founder of the Democracy in Europe Movement 2025 (~DiEM25), Yanis Varoufakis, argues why the Basic Income is a necessity today. His arguments take into account a macro socio-economic, psychological, philosophical and moral perspective."
[[Seats per 100000 votes|]]
Source: Twitter
Simple table showing votes obtained by each party and the resulting number of seats, compared to the disproportionate degree of representation as indicated by the number of seats gained per 100,000 votes.
[[Here's what the UK electoral map would look like with Proportional Representation|]]
A presentation of numerous infographics and tables illustrating how the established voting system fails to reflect the growing diversity of voting patterns, and how Parliamentary seats might be more fairly distributed under a system of Proportional Representation.
[[Why the UK needs Proportional Representation to make votes matter|]]
[[Make Votes Matter|]]
~YouTube video presentation on how the FPTP electoral system distorts any relationship between number of votes and degree of representation. Discusses how various proportional representation electoral systems can redress this undemocratic imbalance.
[[Types of voting system|]]
Electoral Reform Society
Provides an interactive opportunity to explore the features of different voting systems. Allows the user to rate voting systems by how well they support::
*Voter choice
*Local representation
"Different voting system have a variety of different features, ranging from how proportional they are (whether seats in parliament reflect votes cast), the connection between ~MPs and their communities and the extent to which voters can choose between different candidates."
[[We Need To Talk About Universal Basic Income – Arc Digital|]]
Addresses what the author claims is a broken link between wages and inflation perceived among economists worldwide, proposing Universal Basic Income as a possible remedy. Notes that UBI currently has no empirical evidence to support its theoretical benefits but that various trials are under way.

Proceeds to describe what UBI is and how it is supposed to work, using theoretical examples of a major city in Australia and a mid-level city in the USA. Lists the proposed benefits of UBI and then examines how it is supposed to work, concluding:
>"So in a nutshell a universal basic income is an amount of money created by higher taxes or spending realignment (or both) that the government then pays to all of its citizens in order to improve their lives and the economy."
The remainder of the article discusses how the assumptions implicit in UBI have been encountered previously in various socio-economic contexts, and questions whether UBI might challenge the integrity of free markets, democracy, and capitalism itself. It concludes by examining the potential effect of UBI in a number of key areas:
* Prices
* Reducing Poverty
* Leisure Time, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Education

[[What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Proportional Representation, (PR) Electoral System?|]]
[[UK Engage, a provider of electoral services|]]
''__NOTE:__'' This is a commercial organisation.
Discusses at a summary level the advantages and disadvantages of PR in general versus FPTP.
[[The 2017 General Election: Volatile voting, random results|]]
Electoral Reform Society
The report features numerous tables graphs and charts.
This report analyses and discusses the results of the 2017 UK General Election in the UK under the following section headings, followed by a Conclusion:
# The third strike for First Past the Post
# No return to two-party politics
# Divisive system, divided country
# Alternatives
"Not only have the last three elections either produced hung parliaments
or results so unrepresentative they demean the electoral process (2015 was the most disproportionate in British history), the last two have seen the highest ‘voter volatility’ since 1931. Our voting system is failing to keep up and is undermining the faith voters have that seats in Parliament will reflect the votes they cast. This lottery approach to running elections means we have no idea what will happen or how votes will be reflected in our elected Commons.
This report gives pause for thought for all sides of politics. For the  Conservatives there is the dubious distinction of having put on substantially more votes but actually losing seat share and with it their majority in the House of Commons. Indeed, the Conservatives have not been delivered a strong majority under FPTP for thirty years. One has to look back to the 1987 General Election for such a majority, despite strong vote shares in 1992 and this year."
[[How it is; How it should be|]]
[[THE MANY, NOT THE FEW: Proportional Representation & Labour in the 21st Century|]]
[[Make Votes Matter|]]
>"The Labour Campaign for Electoral Reform (LCER) aims to change Labour Party policy to reject the current voting system and replace it with one in which seats in the House of Commons broadly reflect the vote, in the context of wider constitutional reform.
>Make Votes Matter (MVM) is the cross-party campaign to introduce  Proportional Representation to the House of Commons.
>MVM does not endorse or support any party or alliance of parties, but aims to encourage all parties, organisations and individuals to support the use of a proportional voting system for general elections so that Parliament reflects the voters.
>This report is based on literature review and research carried out by MVM and LCER activists who are Labour Party members, in order to make the case for Proportional Representation to the Labour movement. The report does not represent an endorsement of Labour’s or any other political ideology on the part of MVM."
*Preface to the second edition
*Foreword to the first edition by Cat Smith, Shadow Minister for Voter Engagement & Youth Affairs, and Parliamentary colleagues
*Executive summary
*First Past the Post illustrated
*First Past the Post harms our party, voters and activists
*The answer is Proportional Representation
*Proportional Representation strengthens progressive politics
*Proportional Representation creates equal societies and better outcomes
*The time is now
[[Effect of PR on 2107 Election Results|]]
For the 2017 general election, this is a table showing the total number of votes and vote percentage for each political party, and comparing the actual seats won under FPTP with those which would have been won under PR. It appears that the PR system employed was STV.
[[How to Reform Welfare and Taxes to Provide Every American Citizen with a Basic Income|]]
Scott Santens
A detailed funding plan for cross-partisan implementation of universal basic income in the United States.
>"Some of the most common questions ever asked in regards to the idea of a universal basic income (UBI) are in regards to the details. “How much income? Who gets it? Who pays for it? How is it paid for? What does it replace?” These are all great and important questions, but the answers vary from person to person, because the answers are a matter of personal and political preferences when it comes to fine-grained details. With that said, after years of studying basic income, below you will find what I currently believe in May of 2017 are the details of an optimally designed UBI blueprint."
Drawing on federal definitions and sources of data, the author discusses what sums of money would be required to eliminate poverty altogether in the United States and where the money could come from. Illustrated by detailed calculations (presented via tables, graphs, column charts), the author describes how the introduction of UBI would allow large savings through welfare state reform and social security reform, with the rest of the cost of UBI funded through a carbon tax, a Robin Hood Tax, and parallel reforms of Seigniorage and VAT and the introduction of a Land Value Tax.
The article then discusses the notion of 'economic rent', where money could be diverted from certain economic enterprises and back to citizens through recognition of citizen co-ownership of natural common assets like water and minerals, and social common assets like big data and patent royalties. That revenue is then used to augment a national fund whose purpose is universal dividends.
>"In other words, basic income entirely pays for itself by reducing countless other costs that we currently consider entirely normal to pay, across all of society. Basic income is akin to a vaccine, or a strategy of fire prevention versus fire fighting. It’s an ounce of prevention instead of a pound of cure."
The article concludes by considering the short-term and long-term strategies that might be adopted and the benefits accruing from one and feeding into the other. In the longer term, UBI needs to be indexed to some measure of economic growth. GDP is currently receiving criticism as an inadequate measure of true wealth generation, so UBI will need to take account of new developments in this area.
[[2009-??: Brits Abroad]]
[[2013-??: Brits Living in Other EU Countries]]
[[2014-05: Anti-Immigration Sentiment Has No Relation To The Number Of Foreigners In A Country]]
[[2014-09: Who Lives Where in Europe]]
[[2014-11: The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK]]
[[2014-11: Immigration in the UK: Mythbuster]]
[[2014-11: UK gains £20bn from European migrants, UCL economists reveal]]
[[2014-11: EU Immigration (New Europeans)]]
[[2015-??: Immigration and the UK Labour Market]]
[[2015-02: Immigration to Britain has not increased unemployment or reduced wages, study finds]]
[[2015-08: Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Report]]
[[2015-09: Rethinking migration for a Good Society]]
[[2015-12: Immigration quote: Owen Jones]]
[[2015-12: Migration Statistics Quarterly Report: May 2016]]
[[2016-??: 5 Facts about Immigration that May Surprise You]]
[[2016-02: Migration and local authorities – impact on jobs and working conditions]]
[[2016-04: Is access to work really a pull factor for asylum seekers?]]
[[2016-05: How many migrants are coming from the EU?]]
[[2017-03: What Britain's post-Brexit immigration policy could look like]]
[[2017-04: Migration stats bust myths about skills and welfare]]
[[2017-04: UK needs immigration to keep service industries going, says ONS]]
!Inequality & Wealth
[[2012-07: £13tn hoard hidden from taxman by global elite]]
[[2012-12: Economic Inequality: 93% of the growth in incomes accrued to the top 1% of the population]]
[[2012-12: One European in Four Risks Social Exclusion]]
[[2014-01: Wealth Inequality]]
[[2014-05: Income Inequality in the UK 2014]]
[[2014-?? 46% of the world's wealth is held by 1% of the population]]
[[2015-01: Wealth: Having it all and wanting more]]
[[2016-01: An Economy for the 1%]]
[[2016-01: The world’s richest 62 people now have more wealth than the poorest 3.6 billion combined]]
!Money & Banking
[[2013-04: Economics in policy-making 1: An overview of economics]]
[[2013-04: Economics in policy-making 9a: Part One: Finance and money - the basics]]
[[2013-07: Economics in policy-making 7: Beyond GDP: Valuing what matters and measuring natural capital]]
[[2014-04: Economics in policy-making 9b: Part Two: What's wrong with our financial system?]]
[[2014-04: Banking Scandals UK]]
[[2015-04: People Powered Money: Designing, developing and delivering community currencies]]
[[2016-02: Our friends in the City: Why banking’s return to business as usual threatens our economy]]
!Electoral System
[[2015-??: 2015 General Election Report]]
[[2015-??: Breakdown of votes in Cornish Constituencies]]
[[2017-??: Effect of PR on 2107 Election Results]]
[[2017-03: The new political campaigning]]
[[2017-04: From City Hall to Citizens’ Hall]]
[[2017-05: Seats per 100000 votes]]
[[2017-06-11: Here's what the UK electoral map would look like with Proportional Representation]]
[[2017-06: Why the UK needs Proportional Representation to make votes matter]]
[[2017-07: What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using A Proportional Representation, (PR) Electoral System?]]
[[2017-07: Types of voting system]]
[[2017-08: The 2017 General Election: Volatile voting, random results]]
[[2017-09?: THE MANY, NOT THE FEW: Proportional Representation & Labour in the 21st Century]]
!Work & Income
[[2010-02: 21 hours: Why a shorter working week can help us all to flourish in the 21st century]]
[[2013-03: Benefits]]
[[2014-04: How about a 'citizen's income' instead of benefits?]]
[[2014-08: Citizen's Income]]
[[2014-10: Cut benefits? Yes, let's start with our £85bn corporate welfare handout]]
[[2015-02: Paying everyone a basic income would kill off low-paid menial jobs]]
[[2016-05: Universal Basic Income: An idea whose time has come?]]
[[2015-06: Welfare spending 2011/12]]
[[2015-09: Benefit fraud vs. Tax fraud]]
[[2015-10: Working hours: Why you are literally wasting your life (unless you live in Sweden)]]
[[2017-01: Varoufakis - New Deal_BBC Newsnight]]
[[2017-02: Preparing Our Economy for the Impact of Automation & AI]]
[[2017-03: Would people work if they didn’t have to?]]
[[2017-04: Varoufakis - Why the Universal Basic Income is a Necessity - by the Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute]]
[[2017-04: There Could Be a Real Solution to Our Broken Economy. It’s Called ‘Universal Basic Assets.’]]
[[2017?-06: How to Reform Welfare and Taxes to Provide Every American Citizen with a Basic Income]]
[[2017-07: We Need To Talk About Universal Basic Income – Arc Digital]]
[[2017-09: How it is; How it should be]]

!!!Basic Income further Information
[[BIEN (Basic Income Earth Network)|]]
[[USA - Alaska|]]
[[USA - Hawaii|]]

[[NEF: A New Macroeconomic Strategy|]]
@@color:#1946A1;''~ECOPedia''@@ is a compendium of fact and fact-based commentary on issues underpinning the sustainability of human civilization. It focuses currently on topics in the socio-economic domain, but it is hoped, in time, to include sections focusing on the environment, climate change, energy and sustainability in general. It is designed for quick consultation to support discussions when such issues arise. To learn how to use @@color:#1946A1;''~ECOPedia''@@ see @@color:#000066;''[[How To]]''@@.

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Barclays announces �38.5m bonuses on budget day. The Guardian, 2013-03-20.
@@color(green):__''Basic Income''__@@
[[Finland considers basic income to reform welfare system - BBC News|]]
[[About ECOPedia]]
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[[Entering the Human Age|]]
We also gave the go ahead for the entry into force of a Financial Transactions Tax in eleven member states which together account for 90% of the eurozone's GDP.

[Newsletter from the European Parliament, Saturday 15 December 2012 - Sir Graham Watson MEP]
!What is a ~TiddlyWiki?

~TiddlyWiki is an ingenious free application that is ideal for taking and organizing notes, organizing to-do lists, and even managing small personal databases. It is basically an html file (a webpage) stuffed with special code that allows you to create small snippets of information called Tiddlers. These tiddlers can be linked by tags and hyperlinks, and tucked away. When you need them again, you can use a search window, your own personalized tables of contents, or any number of handy tiddler indexes to find them quickly. Think of ~TiddlyWiki as an easily-searchable catalog of 3x5 cards and post-it notes all linked together in one file.

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~TiddlyWikis were invented by Jeremy Ruston. His site, with the original documentation and other information, can be found at 

(Item courtesy of [[TiddlyWiki for the rest of us|]].)
!Collaborative Development
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[[About ECOPedia]]
[[How To]]
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Facts for Facing the Future
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[[Tax Havens - Investigating International Finance - Episode 1 |]]
[[British public wrongly believe rich pay most in tax, new research shows|]]
{Guardian, 2014-06-16}
[[PDF (497K)|]]

New [[CReAM|]] research shows that European immigrants to the UK have paid more in taxes than they received in benefits, helping to relieve the fiscal burden on ~UK-born workers and contributing to the financing of public services.

{The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK. Christian Dustmann and Tommaso Frattini. The Economic Journal, Volume 124, Issue 580, November 2014, pages F593�F643}

[[Source: |]]
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